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Mercury Deutsch

Mercury Deutsch Beispielsätze für "mercury"

Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'Mercury' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und. Übersetzung Englisch-Deutsch für mercury im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. Übersetzung für 'mercury' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für Mercury im Online-Wörterbuch paresgrup.co (​Deutschwörterbuch). These are: (i) amendment 6 because there is no scientific basis for extending restrictions to mercury-containing devices other than those described in the.

Mercury Deutsch

mercury. noun. /ˈməːkjuri/. ○. (chemistry) (symbol Hg) an element, a poisonous, silvery, liquid metal used especially in thermometers etc. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für Mercury im Online-Wörterbuch paresgrup.co (​Deutschwörterbuch). Übersetzung für "mercury" im Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch dictindustry - mit Forum und Beispielen. Gasentladungslampen: Entfernung des Quecksilbers. Lotto Toto Niedersachsen Quecksilber Merkur. Beispielsätze Beispielsätze für "mercury" auf Deutsch Diese Sätze sind von externen Quellen und können Wo Ist Der Stripclub Fehler enthalten. Mercury and Mercury Compounds. Dennoch bin ich sehr dafür, die Ausfuhr von Quecksilber aus Europa zu verbieten. English The chloroalkaline industry has signed an agreement to put here end to the use of mercury completely by Mercury is used to absorb the gold. Anorganische und organische Quecksilberverbindungen, chemisch als Quecksilber definiert ohne Amalgame. Neuen Eintrag schreiben. English Mercury is a highly toxic substance and it is vital that scientific evidence is used to see more where it can be used safely and where it should be banned. Allgemein mercury auch: quicksilver. Quecksilbergehalt des Profilelements. In die Atmosphäre gelangtes Quecksilber kann über weite Strecken transportiert werden. English Since removing mercury from paediatric vaccines check this out California, cases of autism are continuing to increase.

Mercury Deutsch Pronunciation Video

Ergebnisse: Möchten Sie ein Wort, eine Phrase oder eine Übersetzung hinzufügen? Durchsuchen merciful. Füllen Sie bitte das Feedback-Formular aus. Wenn Sie die Vokabeln in den Vokabeltrainer übernehmen möchten, klicken Sie in der Vokabelliste einfach auf "Vokabeln übertragen". When the Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes discovered this effect in in mercury, he initially believed that his measuring instruments were faulty, before he became aware Spielothek in Roscharden finden the significance of his monumental discovery. Quecksilber eingesetzt. Proposal for a Regulation of https://paresgrup.co/online-casino-betrug/beste-spielothek-in-broglio-finden.php European Parliament and of the Council on the banning of exports and the safe storage in Grodt finden Beste Spielothek metallic mercury [second reading] - Approval of the European Parliament's amendments LA.

Mercury offers a comprehensive range of tools for 3D structure visualisation and the exploration of crystal packing. With a long pedigree and over 10, downloads, Mercury is firmly established as the visualiser of choice within the crystallographic community.

If your institution has a CSD licence, you may obtain this functionality by registering your copy of Mercury. A Style Manager contains a number of pre-defined display styles for work, publication and presentation and also provides the ability to preserve and share your own custom display settings.

Stunning 3D images created using Mercury can be exported in a variety of common formats. In addition, it is possible to render high quality ray-traced images using POV-Ray.

The stability of the 6s shell is due to the presence of a filled 4f shell. An f shell poorly screens the nuclear charge that increases the attractive Coulomb interaction of the 6s shell and the nucleus see lanthanide contraction.

The absence of a filled inner f shell is the reason for the somewhat higher melting temperature of cadmium and zinc , although both these metals still melt easily and, in addition, have unusually low boiling points.

Mercury does not react with most acids, such as dilute sulfuric acid , although oxidizing acids such as concentrated sulfuric acid and nitric acid or aqua regia dissolve it to give sulfate , nitrate , and chloride.

Like silver, mercury reacts with atmospheric hydrogen sulfide. Mercury reacts with solid sulfur flakes, which are used in mercury spill kits to absorb mercury spill kits also use activated carbon and powdered zinc.

Mercury dissolves many metals such as gold and silver to form amalgams. Iron is an exception, and iron flasks have traditionally been used to trade mercury.

Several other first row transition metals with the exception of manganese , copper and zinc are also resistant in forming amalgams. Other elements that do not readily form amalgams with mercury include platinum.

Mercury readily combines with aluminium to form a mercury-aluminium amalgam when the two pure metals come into contact.

Since the amalgam destroys the aluminium oxide layer which protects metallic aluminium from oxidizing in-depth as in iron rusting , even small amounts of mercury can seriously corrode aluminium.

For this reason, mercury is not allowed aboard an aircraft under most circumstances because of the risk of it forming an amalgam with exposed aluminium parts in the aircraft.

Mercury embrittlement is the most common type of liquid metal embrittlement. There are seven stable isotopes of mercury, with Hg being the most abundant The longest-lived radioisotopes are Hg with a half-life of years, and Hg with a half-life of Most of the remaining radioisotopes have half-lives that are less than a day.

Hg is the modern chemical symbol for mercury. The element was named after the Roman god Mercury , known for his speed and mobility.

Mercury was found in Egyptian tombs that date from BC. In China and Tibet , mercury use was thought to prolong life, heal fractures, and maintain generally good health, although it is now known that exposure to mercury vapor leads to serious adverse health effects.

In November "large quantities" of mercury were discovered in a chamber 60 feet below the year-old pyramid known as the " Temple of the Feathered Serpent ," "the third largest pyramid of Teotihuacan ," Mexico along with "jade statues, jaguar remains, a box filled with carved shells and rubber balls.

The ancient Greeks used cinnabar mercury sulfide in ointments; the ancient Egyptians and the Romans used it in cosmetics.

In Lamanai , once a major city of the Maya civilization , a pool of mercury was found under a marker in a Mesoamerican ballcourt.

Alchemists thought of mercury as the First Matter from which all metals were formed. They believed that different metals could be produced by varying the quality and quantity of sulfur contained within the mercury.

The purest of these was gold, and mercury was called for in attempts at the transmutation of base or impure metals into gold, which was the goal of many alchemists.

Mercury is an extremely rare element in Earth's crust , having an average crustal abundance by mass of only 0.

The richest mercury ores contain up to 2. It is found either as a native metal rare or in cinnabar , metacinnabar, corderoite , livingstonite and other minerals , with cinnabar HgS being the most common ore.

Beginning in , with the invention of the patio process to extract silver from ore using mercury, mercury became an essential resource in the economy of Spain and its American colonies.

Mercury was used to extract silver from the lucrative mines in New Spain and Peru. The patio process and later pan amalgamation process continued to create great demand for mercury to treat silver ores until the late 19th century.

Mercury is extracted by heating cinnabar in a current of air and condensing the vapor. The equation for this extraction is.

In , China was the top producer of mercury with almost two-thirds global share followed by Kyrgyzstan. Because of the high toxicity of mercury, both the mining of cinnabar and refining for mercury are hazardous and historic causes of mercury poisoning.

Thousands of prisoners were used by the Luo Xi mining company to establish new tunnels. The European Union directive calling for compact fluorescent bulbs to be made mandatory by has encouraged China to re-open cinnabar mines to obtain the mercury required for CFL bulb manufacture.

Environmental dangers have been a concern, particularly in the southern cities of Foshan and Guangzhou , and in Guizhou province in the southwest.

Abandoned mercury mine processing sites often contain very hazardous waste piles of roasted cinnabar calcines. Water run-off from such sites is a recognized source of ecological damage.

Former mercury mines may be suited for constructive re-use. For example, in Santa Clara County, California purchased the historic Almaden Quicksilver Mine and created a county park on the site, after conducting extensive safety and environmental analysis of the property.

Mercury exists in two oxidation states, I and II. Unlike its lighter neighbors, cadmium and zinc, mercury usually forms simple stable compounds with metal-metal bonds.

Stable derivatives include the chloride and nitrate. Treatment of Hg I compounds complexation with strong ligands such as sulfide, cyanide, etc.

It is a standard in electrochemistry. It reacts with chlorine to give mercuric chloride, which resists further oxidation. Indicative of its tendency to bond to itself, mercury forms mercury polycations , which consist of linear chains of mercury centers, capped with a positive charge.

Mercury II is the most common oxidation state and is the main one in nature as well. All four mercuric halides are known.

Best known is mercury II chloride , an easily sublimating white solid. HgCl 2 forms coordination complexes that are typically tetrahedral, e.

Mercury II oxide , the main oxide of mercury, arises when the metal is exposed to air for long periods at elevated temperatures. Being a soft metal , mercury forms very stable derivatives with the heavier chalcogens.

Preeminent is mercury II sulfide , HgS, which occurs in nature as the ore cinnabar and is the brilliant pigment vermillion.

Like ZnS, HgS crystallizes in two forms , the reddish cubic form and the black zinc blende form. Mercury II salts form a variety of complex derivatives with ammonia.

Mercury fulminate is a detonator widely used in explosives. Organic mercury compounds are historically important but are of little industrial value in the western world.

Mercury II salts are a rare example of simple metal complexes that react directly with aromatic rings. Organomercury compounds are always divalent and usually two-coordinate and linear geometry.

Unlike organocadmium and organozinc compounds, organomercury compounds do not react with water.

They usually have the formula HgR 2 , which are often volatile, or HgRX, which are often solids, where R is aryl or alkyl and X is usually halide or acetate.

Methylmercury , a generic term for compounds with the formula CH 3 HgX, is a dangerous family of compounds that are often found in polluted water.

Mercury is used primarily for the manufacture of industrial chemicals or for electrical and electronic applications. It is used in some thermometers, especially ones which are used to measure high temperatures.

A still increasing amount is used as gaseous mercury in fluorescent lamps , while most of the other applications are slowly phased out due to health and safety regulations and is in some applications replaced with less toxic but considerably more expensive Galinstan alloy.

Mercury and its compounds have been used in medicine, although they are much less common today than they once were, now that the toxic effects of mercury and its compounds are more widely understood.

The first edition of the Merck's Manual featured many mercuric compounds [46] such as:. Mercury is an ingredient in dental amalgams.

Thiomersal called Thimerosal in the United States is an organic compound used as a preservative in vaccines , though this use is in decline.

Although it was widely speculated that this mercury-based preservative could cause or trigger autism in children, scientific studies showed no evidence supporting any such link.

Another mercury compound, merbromin Mercurochrome , is a topical antiseptic used for minor cuts and scrapes that is still in use in some countries.

Mercury in the form of one of its common ores, cinnabar, is used in various traditional medicines, especially in traditional Chinese medicine.

Review of its safety has found that cinnabar can lead to significant mercury intoxication when heated, consumed in overdose , or taken long term, and can have adverse effects at therapeutic doses, though effects from therapeutic doses are typically reversible.

Although this form of mercury appears to be less toxic than other forms, its use in traditional Chinese medicine has not yet been justified, as the therapeutic basis for the use of cinnabar is not clear.

Today, the use of mercury in medicine has greatly declined in all respects, especially in developed countries. Thermometers and sphygmomanometers containing mercury were invented in the early 18th and late 19th centuries, respectively.

In the early 21st century, their use is declining and has been banned in some countries, states and medical institutions.

In , the U. Senate passed legislation to phase out the sale of non-prescription mercury thermometers. In , Washington and Maine became the first states to ban mercury blood pressure devices.

The FDA has "inadequate data to establish general recognition of the safety and effectiveness" of the mercury ingredients in these products.

Chlorine is produced from sodium chloride common salt, NaCl using electrolysis to separate the metallic sodium from the chlorine gas.

Usually the salt is dissolved in water to produce a brine. By-products of any such chloralkali process are hydrogen H 2 and sodium hydroxide NaOH , which is commonly called caustic soda or lye.

By far the largest use of mercury [53] [54] in the late 20th century was in the mercury cell process also called the Castner-Kellner process where metallic sodium is formed as an amalgam at a cathode made from mercury; this sodium is then reacted with water to produce sodium hydroxide.

Some medical thermometers , especially those for high temperatures, are filled with mercury; they are gradually disappearing.

In the United States, non-prescription sale of mercury fever thermometers has been banned since Some transit telescopes use a basin of mercury to form a flat and absolutely horizontal mirror, useful in determining an absolute vertical or perpendicular reference.

Concave horizontal parabolic mirrors may be formed by rotating liquid mercury on a disk, the parabolic form of the liquid thus formed reflecting and focusing incident light.

Such liquid-mirror telescopes are cheaper than conventional large mirror telescopes by up to a factor of , but the mirror cannot be tilted and always points straight up.

Liquid mercury is a part of popular secondary reference electrode called the calomel electrode in electrochemistry as an alternative to the standard hydrogen electrode.

The calomel electrode is used to work out the electrode potential of half cells. In polarography both the dropping mercury electrode [61] and the hanging mercury drop electrode [62] use elemental mercury.

This use allows a new uncontaminated electrode to be available for each measurement or each new experiment.

Mercury-containing compounds are also of use in the field of structural biology. Mercuric compounds such as mercury II chloride or potassium tetraiodomercurate II can be added to protein crystals in an effort to create heavy atom derivatives that can be used to solve the phase problem in X-ray crystallography via isomorphous replacement or anomalous scattering methods.

Gaseous mercury is used in mercury-vapor lamps and some " neon sign " type advertising signs and fluorescent lamps.

Those low-pressure lamps emit very spectrally narrow lines, which are traditionally used in optical spectroscopy for calibration of spectral position.

Commercial calibration lamps are sold for this purpose; reflecting a fluorescent ceiling light into a spectrometer is a common calibration practice.

An argon-filled lamp without mercury will have dull spots and will fail to light correctly. The deep violet glow of a mercury vapor discharge in a germicidal lamp , whose spectrum is rich in invisible ultraviolet radiation.

Skin tanner containing a low-pressure mercury vapor lamp and two infrared lamps, which act both as light source and electrical ballast.

The miniaturized Deep Space Atomic Clock is a linear ion-trap-based mercury ion clock, designed for precise and real-time radio navigation in deep space.

The novel use of mercury allows very compact atomic clocks, with low energy requirements, and is therefore ideal for space probes and Mars missions.

Mercury, as thiomersal , is widely used in the manufacture of mascara. In , Minnesota became the first state in the United States to ban intentionally added mercury in cosmetics, giving it a tougher standard than the federal government.

A study in geometric mean urine mercury concentration identified a previously unrecognized source of exposure skin care products to inorganic mercury among New York City residents.

Population-based biomonitoring also showed that mercury concentration levels are higher in consumers of seafood and fish meals. Mercury II fulminate is a primary explosive which is mainly used as a primer of a cartridge in firearms.

Many historic applications made use of the peculiar physical properties of mercury, especially as a dense liquid and a liquid metal:.

Mercury I chloride also known as calomel or mercurous chloride has been used in traditional medicine as a diuretic , topical disinfectant , and laxative.

Mercury II chloride also known as mercuric chloride or corrosive sublimate was once used to treat syphilis along with other mercury compounds , although it is so toxic that sometimes the symptoms of its toxicity were confused with those of the syphilis it was believed to treat.

Blue mass , a pill or syrup in which mercury is the main ingredient, was prescribed throughout the 19th century for numerous conditions including constipation, depression, child-bearing and toothaches.

The mercury-containing organohalide merbromin sometimes sold as Mercurochrome is still widely used but has been banned in some countries such as the U.

Mercury and most of its compounds are extremely toxic and must be handled with care; in cases of spills involving mercury such as from certain thermometers or fluorescent light bulbs , specific cleaning procedures are used to avoid exposure and contain the spill.

Vacuum cleaners and brooms cause greater dispersal of the mercury and should not be used. Afterwards, fine sulfur , zinc , or some other powder that readily forms an amalgam alloy with mercury at ordinary temperatures is sprinkled over the area before itself being collected and properly disposed of.

Cleaning porous surfaces and clothing is not effective at removing all traces of mercury and it is therefore advised to discard these kinds of items should they be exposed to a mercury spill.

Mercury can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes and mercury vapors can be inhaled, so containers of mercury are securely sealed to avoid spills and evaporation.

Heating of mercury, or of compounds of mercury that may decompose when heated, should be carried out with adequate ventilation in order to minimize exposure to mercury vapor.

The most toxic forms of mercury are its organic compounds , such as dimethylmercury and methylmercury. Mercury can cause both chronic and acute poisoning.

Although that can be considered a natural level of exposure, regional or global sources have significant effects.

Volcanic eruptions can increase the atmospheric source by 4—6 times. Natural sources, such as volcanoes , are responsible for approximately half of atmospheric mercury emissions.

The human-generated half can be divided into the following estimated percentages: [96] [97] [98]. The above percentages are estimates of the global human-caused mercury emissions in , excluding biomass burning, an important source in some regions.

Recent atmospheric mercury contamination in outdoor urban air was measured at 0. A study measured mercury levels in 12 indoor sites chosen to represent a cross-section of building types, locations and ages in the New York area.

This study found mercury concentrations significantly elevated over outdoor concentrations, at a range of 0.

The average was 0. Artificial lakes may be contaminated with mercury due to the absorption by the water of mercury from submerged trees and soil.

For example, Williston Lake in northern British Columbia, created by the damming of the Peace River in , is still sufficiently contaminated with mercury that it is inadvisable to consume fish from the lake.

Mercury also enters into the environment through the improper disposal e. Products containing mercury include: auto parts, batteries , fluorescent bulbs, medical products, thermometers, and thermostats.

For example, the amount of mercury sold in thermostats in the United States decreased from Most thermometers now use pigmented alcohol instead of mercury, and galinstan alloy thermometers are also an option.

Mercury thermometers are still occasionally used in the medical field because they are more accurate than alcohol thermometers, though both are commonly being replaced by electronic thermometers and less commonly by galinstan thermometers.

Mercury thermometers are still widely used for certain scientific applications because of their greater accuracy and working range.

Historically, one of the largest releases was from the Colex plant, a lithium isotope separation plant at Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

The plant operated in the s and s. Records are incomplete and unclear, but government commissions have estimated that some two million pounds of mercury are unaccounted for.

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They usually have the formula HgR 2which are often volatile, or HgRX, which are often solids, where R is aryl or alkyl and X is usually halide or acetate. The Guardian. Living https://paresgrup.co/jackpot-party-casino-online/spiele-dragon-ladies-video-slots-online.php Magazine Internships. Thousands of prisoners were used here the Luo Xi mining company to establish new tunnels. Archived from the original on 1 December Sediments within large urban-industrial estuaries act as an important sink for point source and diffuse Openodds pollution within catchments. The calomel electrode is used to work out the electrode potential of half cells. Visit web page from the original on Mercury Deutsch October

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Fügen Sie mercury zu einer der folgenden Listen hinzu oder erstellen Sie eine neue. We are sorry for the inconvenience. Quecksilberverbindungen, ausgenommen zu Zwecken der Forschung und Entwicklung, Medizin und Analyse ausgeführte Verbindungen. DE Mercurius Merkur. Compounds, inorganic or organic, Spielothek finden Weiskeissel Beste in mercuryexcluding amalgams. Als der niederländische Physiker Heike Kamerlingh Onnes diesen Effekt an Quecksilber entdeckte, glaubte er zunächst an einen Fehler seines Messinstruments, bevor ihm die Tragweite https://paresgrup.co/jackpot-party-casino-online/beste-spielothek-in-bodenmais-finden.php Jahrhundertentdeckung bewusst wurde. English The same goes for the labelling of gold that has been mined without using mercuryboth inside and outside Beste Spielothek in finden European Union.

For more details about cookies and how to manage them, see our cookie policy. Mercury offers a comprehensive range of tools for 3D structure visualisation and the exploration of crystal packing.

With a long pedigree and over 10, downloads, Mercury is firmly established as the visualiser of choice within the crystallographic community.

If your institution has a CSD licence, you may obtain this functionality by registering your copy of Mercury. A Style Manager contains a number of pre-defined display styles for work, publication and presentation and also provides the ability to preserve and share your own custom display settings.

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Mercury exists in two oxidation states, I and II. Unlike its lighter neighbors, cadmium and zinc, mercury usually forms simple stable compounds with metal-metal bonds.

Stable derivatives include the chloride and nitrate. Treatment of Hg I compounds complexation with strong ligands such as sulfide, cyanide, etc.

It is a standard in electrochemistry. It reacts with chlorine to give mercuric chloride, which resists further oxidation. Indicative of its tendency to bond to itself, mercury forms mercury polycations , which consist of linear chains of mercury centers, capped with a positive charge.

Mercury II is the most common oxidation state and is the main one in nature as well. All four mercuric halides are known.

Best known is mercury II chloride , an easily sublimating white solid. HgCl 2 forms coordination complexes that are typically tetrahedral, e.

Mercury II oxide , the main oxide of mercury, arises when the metal is exposed to air for long periods at elevated temperatures. Being a soft metal , mercury forms very stable derivatives with the heavier chalcogens.

Preeminent is mercury II sulfide , HgS, which occurs in nature as the ore cinnabar and is the brilliant pigment vermillion. Like ZnS, HgS crystallizes in two forms , the reddish cubic form and the black zinc blende form.

Mercury II salts form a variety of complex derivatives with ammonia. Mercury fulminate is a detonator widely used in explosives.

Organic mercury compounds are historically important but are of little industrial value in the western world. Mercury II salts are a rare example of simple metal complexes that react directly with aromatic rings.

Organomercury compounds are always divalent and usually two-coordinate and linear geometry. Unlike organocadmium and organozinc compounds, organomercury compounds do not react with water.

They usually have the formula HgR 2 , which are often volatile, or HgRX, which are often solids, where R is aryl or alkyl and X is usually halide or acetate.

Methylmercury , a generic term for compounds with the formula CH 3 HgX, is a dangerous family of compounds that are often found in polluted water.

Mercury is used primarily for the manufacture of industrial chemicals or for electrical and electronic applications. It is used in some thermometers, especially ones which are used to measure high temperatures.

A still increasing amount is used as gaseous mercury in fluorescent lamps , while most of the other applications are slowly phased out due to health and safety regulations and is in some applications replaced with less toxic but considerably more expensive Galinstan alloy.

Mercury and its compounds have been used in medicine, although they are much less common today than they once were, now that the toxic effects of mercury and its compounds are more widely understood.

The first edition of the Merck's Manual featured many mercuric compounds [46] such as:. Mercury is an ingredient in dental amalgams. Thiomersal called Thimerosal in the United States is an organic compound used as a preservative in vaccines , though this use is in decline.

Although it was widely speculated that this mercury-based preservative could cause or trigger autism in children, scientific studies showed no evidence supporting any such link.

Another mercury compound, merbromin Mercurochrome , is a topical antiseptic used for minor cuts and scrapes that is still in use in some countries.

Mercury in the form of one of its common ores, cinnabar, is used in various traditional medicines, especially in traditional Chinese medicine.

Review of its safety has found that cinnabar can lead to significant mercury intoxication when heated, consumed in overdose , or taken long term, and can have adverse effects at therapeutic doses, though effects from therapeutic doses are typically reversible.

Although this form of mercury appears to be less toxic than other forms, its use in traditional Chinese medicine has not yet been justified, as the therapeutic basis for the use of cinnabar is not clear.

Today, the use of mercury in medicine has greatly declined in all respects, especially in developed countries. Thermometers and sphygmomanometers containing mercury were invented in the early 18th and late 19th centuries, respectively.

In the early 21st century, their use is declining and has been banned in some countries, states and medical institutions. In , the U.

Senate passed legislation to phase out the sale of non-prescription mercury thermometers. In , Washington and Maine became the first states to ban mercury blood pressure devices.

The FDA has "inadequate data to establish general recognition of the safety and effectiveness" of the mercury ingredients in these products.

Chlorine is produced from sodium chloride common salt, NaCl using electrolysis to separate the metallic sodium from the chlorine gas.

Usually the salt is dissolved in water to produce a brine. By-products of any such chloralkali process are hydrogen H 2 and sodium hydroxide NaOH , which is commonly called caustic soda or lye.

By far the largest use of mercury [53] [54] in the late 20th century was in the mercury cell process also called the Castner-Kellner process where metallic sodium is formed as an amalgam at a cathode made from mercury; this sodium is then reacted with water to produce sodium hydroxide.

Some medical thermometers , especially those for high temperatures, are filled with mercury; they are gradually disappearing. In the United States, non-prescription sale of mercury fever thermometers has been banned since Some transit telescopes use a basin of mercury to form a flat and absolutely horizontal mirror, useful in determining an absolute vertical or perpendicular reference.

Concave horizontal parabolic mirrors may be formed by rotating liquid mercury on a disk, the parabolic form of the liquid thus formed reflecting and focusing incident light.

Such liquid-mirror telescopes are cheaper than conventional large mirror telescopes by up to a factor of , but the mirror cannot be tilted and always points straight up.

Liquid mercury is a part of popular secondary reference electrode called the calomel electrode in electrochemistry as an alternative to the standard hydrogen electrode.

The calomel electrode is used to work out the electrode potential of half cells. In polarography both the dropping mercury electrode [61] and the hanging mercury drop electrode [62] use elemental mercury.

This use allows a new uncontaminated electrode to be available for each measurement or each new experiment.

Mercury-containing compounds are also of use in the field of structural biology. Mercuric compounds such as mercury II chloride or potassium tetraiodomercurate II can be added to protein crystals in an effort to create heavy atom derivatives that can be used to solve the phase problem in X-ray crystallography via isomorphous replacement or anomalous scattering methods.

Gaseous mercury is used in mercury-vapor lamps and some " neon sign " type advertising signs and fluorescent lamps. Those low-pressure lamps emit very spectrally narrow lines, which are traditionally used in optical spectroscopy for calibration of spectral position.

Commercial calibration lamps are sold for this purpose; reflecting a fluorescent ceiling light into a spectrometer is a common calibration practice.

An argon-filled lamp without mercury will have dull spots and will fail to light correctly. The deep violet glow of a mercury vapor discharge in a germicidal lamp , whose spectrum is rich in invisible ultraviolet radiation.

Skin tanner containing a low-pressure mercury vapor lamp and two infrared lamps, which act both as light source and electrical ballast.

The miniaturized Deep Space Atomic Clock is a linear ion-trap-based mercury ion clock, designed for precise and real-time radio navigation in deep space.

The novel use of mercury allows very compact atomic clocks, with low energy requirements, and is therefore ideal for space probes and Mars missions.

Mercury, as thiomersal , is widely used in the manufacture of mascara. In , Minnesota became the first state in the United States to ban intentionally added mercury in cosmetics, giving it a tougher standard than the federal government.

A study in geometric mean urine mercury concentration identified a previously unrecognized source of exposure skin care products to inorganic mercury among New York City residents.

Population-based biomonitoring also showed that mercury concentration levels are higher in consumers of seafood and fish meals.

Mercury II fulminate is a primary explosive which is mainly used as a primer of a cartridge in firearms.

Many historic applications made use of the peculiar physical properties of mercury, especially as a dense liquid and a liquid metal:.

Mercury I chloride also known as calomel or mercurous chloride has been used in traditional medicine as a diuretic , topical disinfectant , and laxative.

Mercury II chloride also known as mercuric chloride or corrosive sublimate was once used to treat syphilis along with other mercury compounds , although it is so toxic that sometimes the symptoms of its toxicity were confused with those of the syphilis it was believed to treat.

Blue mass , a pill or syrup in which mercury is the main ingredient, was prescribed throughout the 19th century for numerous conditions including constipation, depression, child-bearing and toothaches.

The mercury-containing organohalide merbromin sometimes sold as Mercurochrome is still widely used but has been banned in some countries such as the U.

Mercury and most of its compounds are extremely toxic and must be handled with care; in cases of spills involving mercury such as from certain thermometers or fluorescent light bulbs , specific cleaning procedures are used to avoid exposure and contain the spill.

Vacuum cleaners and brooms cause greater dispersal of the mercury and should not be used. Afterwards, fine sulfur , zinc , or some other powder that readily forms an amalgam alloy with mercury at ordinary temperatures is sprinkled over the area before itself being collected and properly disposed of.

Cleaning porous surfaces and clothing is not effective at removing all traces of mercury and it is therefore advised to discard these kinds of items should they be exposed to a mercury spill.

Mercury can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes and mercury vapors can be inhaled, so containers of mercury are securely sealed to avoid spills and evaporation.

Heating of mercury, or of compounds of mercury that may decompose when heated, should be carried out with adequate ventilation in order to minimize exposure to mercury vapor.

The most toxic forms of mercury are its organic compounds , such as dimethylmercury and methylmercury. Mercury can cause both chronic and acute poisoning.

Although that can be considered a natural level of exposure, regional or global sources have significant effects. Volcanic eruptions can increase the atmospheric source by 4—6 times.

Natural sources, such as volcanoes , are responsible for approximately half of atmospheric mercury emissions.

The human-generated half can be divided into the following estimated percentages: [96] [97] [98]. The above percentages are estimates of the global human-caused mercury emissions in , excluding biomass burning, an important source in some regions.

Recent atmospheric mercury contamination in outdoor urban air was measured at 0. A study measured mercury levels in 12 indoor sites chosen to represent a cross-section of building types, locations and ages in the New York area.

This study found mercury concentrations significantly elevated over outdoor concentrations, at a range of 0. The average was 0.

Artificial lakes may be contaminated with mercury due to the absorption by the water of mercury from submerged trees and soil.

For example, Williston Lake in northern British Columbia, created by the damming of the Peace River in , is still sufficiently contaminated with mercury that it is inadvisable to consume fish from the lake.

Mercury also enters into the environment through the improper disposal e. Products containing mercury include: auto parts, batteries , fluorescent bulbs, medical products, thermometers, and thermostats.

For example, the amount of mercury sold in thermostats in the United States decreased from Most thermometers now use pigmented alcohol instead of mercury, and galinstan alloy thermometers are also an option.

Mercury thermometers are still occasionally used in the medical field because they are more accurate than alcohol thermometers, though both are commonly being replaced by electronic thermometers and less commonly by galinstan thermometers.

Mercury thermometers are still widely used for certain scientific applications because of their greater accuracy and working range.

Historically, one of the largest releases was from the Colex plant, a lithium isotope separation plant at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The plant operated in the s and s.

Records are incomplete and unclear, but government commissions have estimated that some two million pounds of mercury are unaccounted for.

A serious industrial disaster was the dumping of mercury compounds into Minamata Bay, Japan. It is estimated that over 3, people suffered various deformities, severe mercury poisoning symptoms or death from what became known as Minamata disease.

The tobacco plant readily absorbs and accumulates heavy metals such as mercury from the surrounding soil into its leaves.

These are subsequently inhaled during tobacco smoking. Sediments within large urban-industrial estuaries act as an important sink for point source and diffuse mercury pollution within catchments.

Due to the health effects of mercury exposure, industrial and commercial uses are regulated in many countries.

Environmental releases and disposal of mercury are regulated in the U. Fish and shellfish have a natural tendency to concentrate mercury in their bodies, often in the form of methylmercury , a highly toxic organic compound of mercury.

Species of fish that are high on the food chain , such as shark , swordfish , king mackerel , bluefin tuna , albacore tuna , and tilefish contain higher concentrations of mercury than others.

As mercury and methylmercury are fat soluble, they primarily accumulate in the viscera , although they are also found throughout the muscle tissue.

Since fish are less efficient at depurating than accumulating methylmercury, fish-tissue concentrations increase over time.

Thus species that are high on the food chain amass body burdens of mercury that can be ten times higher than the species they consume.

This process is called biomagnification. Mercury poisoning happened this way in Minamata , Japan , now called Minamata disease.

Some facial creams contain dangerous levels of mercury. Most contain comparatively non-toxic inorganic mercury, but products containing highly toxic organic mercury have been encountered.

Toxic effects include damage to the brain, kidneys and lungs. Mercury poisoning can result in several diseases, including acrodynia pink disease , Hunter-Russell syndrome, and Minamata disease.

Symptoms typically include sensory impairment vision, hearing, speech , disturbed sensation and a lack of coordination. The type and degree of symptoms exhibited depend upon the individual toxin, the dose, and the method and duration of exposure.

Case—control studies have shown effects such as tremors, impaired cognitive skills, and sleep disturbance in workers with chronic exposure to mercury vapor even at low concentrations in the range 0.

Occupational exposure has resulted in broad-ranging functional disturbance, including erethism , irritability, excitability, excessive shyness, and insomnia.

With continuing exposure, a fine tremor develops and may escalate to violent muscular spasms. Tremor initially involves the hands and later spreads to the eyelids, lips, and tongue.

Long-term, low-level exposure has been associated with more subtle symptoms of erethism, including fatigue, irritability, loss of memory, vivid dreams and depression.

Research on the treatment of mercury poisoning is limited. In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency is charged with regulating and managing mercury contamination.

Additionally, the Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act , passed in , phases out the use of mercury in batteries, and provides for the efficient and cost-effective disposal of many types of used batteries.

The United States Clean Air Act , passed in , put mercury on a list of toxic pollutants that need to be controlled to the greatest possible extent.

Thus, industries that release high concentrations of mercury into the environment agreed to install maximum achievable control technologies MACT.

In March , the EPA promulgated a regulation [] that added power plants to the list of sources that should be controlled and instituted a national cap and trade system.

States were given until November to impose stricter controls, but after a legal challenge from several states, the regulations were struck down by a federal appeals court on 8 February The rule was deemed not sufficient to protect the health of persons living near coal-fired power plants, given the negative effects documented in the EPA Study Report to Congress of The EPA announced new rules for coal-fired power plants on 22 December In the European Union , the directive on the Restriction of the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment see RoHS bans mercury from certain electrical and electronic products, and limits the amount of mercury in other products to less than ppm.

The ban applies to new devices only, and contains exemptions for the health care sector and a two-year grace period for manufacturers of barometers.

Satisfactory alternatives to Hg in products are available, and it is therefore fitting to induce a ban. Products containing mercury were banned in Sweden in In , Denmark also banned dental mercury amalgam, [] except for molar masticating surface fillings in permanent adult teeth.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Mercury metal. Chemical element with atomic number Main article: Isotopes of mercury.

See also: Category:Mercury minerals and Category:Mercury mines.

Mercury Deutsch - Weitere Englisch-Deutsch Übersetzungen

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