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BBC News. Retrieved 28 October The Straits Times. RT International. Nikkei Asian Review. China Daily.
Archived from the original on 20 July Retrieved 3 October Archived from the original on 22 October Retrieved 22 October Retrieved 16 August Archived from the original on 9 February Retrieved 8 February South China Morning Post.
Retrieved 23 October The Wall Street Journal, Eastern edition. Retrieved 27 October Window of China. Archived from the original on 24 October Retrieved 17 April Wall Street Journal.
Archived from the original on 13 October Retrieved 15 December Retrieved 22 December Archived from the original on 8 June Archived from the original on 18 October Retrieved 14 October Retrieved 15 June The Standard.
Highways Department Hong Kong. Hong Kong's Information Services Department. Japanese Geotechnical Society Special Publication. Retrieved 1 November Retrieved 22 November Retrieved 23 November Retrieved 25 October Highways Department.
July Archived PDF from the original on 26 November Hong Kong Economic Journal. Archived from the original on 26 November Hong Kong Free Press.
Archived from the original on 19 November Archived from the original on 30 November Archived from the original on 6 December Retrieved 6 December Archived from the original on 13 April Archived from the original on 14 April Lantau News.
Concerns over Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau bridge dismissed". Retrieved 29 October Vision Times. Retrieved 4 January Transport in China. History Proposed public transport.
Transport in Hong Kong. List of tunnels and bridges Octopus card. Bridges in Hong Kong. Bridges and tunnels in Macau. Economy of Hong Kong.
International rankings of Hong Kong. List of power stations in Hong Kong. See also: Economy of Macau Economy of Asia.
Immigration control points in Hong Kong. The region is bordered by Guangdong province to the north and the South China Sea to the east, south, and west.
It consists of Hong Kong Island , originally ceded by China to Great Britain in , the southern part of the Kowloon Peninsula and Stonecutters Ngong Shuen Island now joined to the mainland , ceded in , and the New Territories , which include the mainland area lying largely to the north, together with large and small offshore islands—all of which were leased from China for 99 years from to The Chinese-British joint declaration signed on December 19, , paved the way for the entire territory to be returned to China, which occurred July 1, The area of Hong Kong Pinyin: Xianggang; Wade-Giles: Hsiang-kang has expanded over the years, and it has continued to grow as more land has been reclaimed from the surrounding sea.
Hong Kong Island and its adjacent islets have an area of only about 31 square miles 81 square km , while urban Kowloon, which includes the Kowloon Peninsula south of Boundary Street, and Stonecutters Island measure about 18 square miles 47 square km.
The New Territories account for the rest of the area—more than 90 percent of the total. The Victoria urban district located on the barren rocks of the northwestern coast of Hong Kong Island is the place where the British first landed in , and it has since been the centre of administrative and economic activities.
The community remains limited in space and natural resources, and it faces persistent problems of overcrowding, trade fluctuations, and social and political unrest.
Hong Kong has rugged relief and marked variations in topography , which is in sharp contrast to the low-lying areas of the Pearl River Delta region but conforms geologically and structurally to the well-eroded upland region of the great South China massif.
Structurally, the area is an upfold, running northeast-southwest, that was formed about million years ago toward the latter part of the Jurassic Period.
Lava poured into this structure and formed volcanic rocks that were later intruded by an extensive granitic dome.
The harbour of Hong Kong was formed by the drowning of the denuded centre of the dome. The surrounding hills on the mainland and on Hong Kong Island are partly capped by volcanic rocks, and steep, scarplike concave slopes lead to the inner harbour.
The area is a partially submerged, dissected upland terrain that rises abruptly to heights above 2, feet metres ; its backbone is made up of a series of ridges, running northeast to southwest, that tie in closely with the structural trend in South China.
This trend is clearly observable from the alignment of Lantau Island and the Tolo Channel. From Mount Tai Mo—at 3, feet metres the highest peak in the territory—the series of ridges extends southwestward to Lantau Island , where the terrain rises to 3, feet metres on Lantau Peak and 2, feet metres on Sunset Peak.
Victoria Hong Kong Harbour is well protected by mountains on Hong Kong Island that include Victoria Peak in the west, which rises to 1, feet metres , and Mount Parker in the east, which reaches a height of about 1, feet metres.
Lowlands of the Hong Kong region, including floodplains, river valleys, and reclaimed land, occupy less than one-fifth of the land.
The urban area that spans the two sides of the harbour, with ongoing reclamation, takes up only about one-tenth of the level area.
Hong Kong lacks a river system of any scope, the only exception being in the north where the Sham Chun Shenzhen River, which forms the boundary between Guangdong and Hong Kong, flows into Deep Bay after collecting a number of small tributaries.
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His proposed bridge would have ended at the Chinese village of Tangjia, and a new road would have continued south through Zhuhai before terminating at Macau.
The route proposed by Wu was promoted by the Zhuhai government under the name Lingdingyang Bridge. In the mids, Zhuhai built a bridge between the mainland and Qi'ao Island that was intended as the first phase of this route, though the full scheme had not been approved by either the Chinese or Hong Kong governments at the time.
In December , the Legislative Council of Hong Kong passed a motion urging the Administration to develop the logistics industry including the construction of a bridge connecting Hong Kong, Zhuhai and Macao.
Officials from three sides solved issues such as landing points and alignments of the bridge, operation of the Border Crossing Facilities, and project financing.
In March , it was further reported that China's Central Government, Hong Kong and Macau agreed to finance 22 percent of the total costs.
The remaining 78 percent consisted of loans approximately Construction of the Hong Kong section of the project began in December after a delay caused by a legal challenge regarding the environmental impact of the bridge.
Construction of the Main Bridge, consisting of a viaduct and an undersea tunnel, was completed on 6 July ,  and the entire construction project was completed on 6 February Hong Kong section under construction in off the coast of Lantau Island.
This section includes a This section includes a 9. The HZMBus shuttle bus service runs 24 hours a day with bus departures as frequent as every five minutes.
Since the Hong Kong government imposes significant fees, taxes and administrative paperwork on private vehicle ownership and usage to deal with road congestion,  driving a car on the HZMB would incur the same restrictions as current cross-border traffic.
In addition, to help compact Macau tackle its road congestion problems, drivers arriving from other regions are strongly encouraged to use a park and ride scheme, leaving their vehicles at a car park on the edge of Macau.
A small quota of vehicles are allowed to enter Macau directly. With the bridge in place, travelling time between Zhuhai and Hong Kong would cut down from about four hours to 30 minutes on the road.
The HZMB project is part of a Beijing -driven strategy to create an economic hub and promote the economic development of the whole area of the Pearl River Delta , which is also known as Greater Bay Area.
The artificial island housing the Hong Kong Boundary Crossing Facilities HKBCF was reported drifting due to an unconventional method, hitherto unused in Hong Kong, for land reclamation using a row of circular steel cells pile-driven into the mud and filled with inert material to form a seawall.
The drifting of parts of the reclaimed island allegedly caused a delay in the HZMB project. The Highways Department denied various reports of movement up to 20 metres but admitted that parts of the reclaimed land had moved "up to six or seven metres",    claiming that some movement was expected and safety had not been jeopardised.
Mainland contractors also reportedly had difficulty constructing immersed tubes for their section of the project, with the director of the Guangdong National Development and Reform Commission stating that would be a difficult target to meet.
By , the Main Bridge of the HZMB project had experienced a cost overrun of about 10 billion yuan, blamed on increased labour and material costs, as well as changes to the design and construction schemes.
The number of deaths and injuries during the construction project came under scrutiny in Hong Kong. In addition to 9 fatalities on the mainland side,  more than ten deaths were reported on the Hong Kong side of the construction project, plus between and injuries, depending on the source.
We don't even know what is happening in China. I suppose the situation could be 10 times worse than that in Hong Kong.
In , Hong Kong's Independent Commission Against Corruption ICAC arrested 21 employees two senior executives, 14 laboratory technicians and five laboratory assistants of Jacobs China Limited, a contractor of the Civil Engineering and Development Department for falsifying concrete test results, thus potentially risking the safety of the bridge for public use.
Hong Kong's Highways Department conducted tests again after the falsified results were exposed and found all test results met safety standards.
In April , the public and media raised questions over the integrity of the seawalls protecting the artificial islands at both ends of the undersea tunnel.
In footage taken by drone users and mariners, the dolosse installed at the edges of the artificial islands appear to have dislodged.
Some civil engineers suggested that there was an error in design. Subsequent aerial footage posted online showed a section of the dolosse breakwater completely underwater.
Civil engineer So Yiu-kwan told Hong Kong media on 12 April that the water level, at the time the photos were taken, was about 1. He said the dolosse would offer no wave protection if entirely submerged, and further alleged that they had been installed backwards.
The dolphins found near waters of Lantau were worst hit with numbers dropping by 60 percent between April and March Feng Shui specialists suggest that the two man-made islands of the HZMB look like two snake heads facing each other from above.
Critics say they have been constructed this way to negatively influence the Feng Shui of Hong Kong. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Fixed link consisting of tunnel and multiple bridges. This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Chinese.
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Retrieved 24 October Xinhua Net. BBC News. Retrieved 28 October The Straits Times. RT International. Nikkei Asian Review.
China Daily. Archived from the original on 20 July Retrieved 3 October Archived from the original on 22 October Retrieved 22 October Retrieved 16 August Archived from the original on 9 February Retrieved 8 February The island was ceded by Qing dynasty in the aftermath of the war in and established as a Crown colony in The colony expanded to the Kowloon Peninsula in after the Second Opium War and was further extended when Britain obtained a year lease of the New Territories in Although Hong Kong Island and Kowloon were ceded in perpetuity, the leased area comprised 92 per cent of the territory and Britain considered that there was no viable way to divide the now single colony, while the Chinese Communist Party would not consider extending the lease or allowing British administration thereafter.
Britain eventually agreed to transfer the entire colony to China upon the expiration of that lease in after obtaining guarantees to preserve its systems, freedoms, and way of life for at least 50 years.
In , the Manchu Qing government undertook a major policy review of the opium trade, which had been introduced to the Chinese by first Persian then Islamic traders over many centuries.
In March , he became Special Imperial Commissioner in Canton , where he ordered the foreign traders to surrender their opium stock.
He confined the British to the Canton Factories and cut off their supplies. Chief Superintendent of Trade, Charles Elliot , complied with Lin's demands to secure a safe exit for the British, with the costs involved to be resolved between the two governments.
When Elliot promised that the British government would pay for their opium stock, the merchants surrendered their 20, chests of opium, which were destroyed in public.
In September , the British Cabinet decided that the Chinese should be made to pay for the destruction of British property, either by the threat or use of force.
An expeditionary force was placed under Elliot and his cousin, Rear-Admiral George Elliot , as joint plenipotentiaries in Foreign Secretary Lord Palmerston stressed to the Chinese government that the British government did not question China's right to prohibit opium, but it objected to the way this was handled.
He instructed the Elliot cousins to occupy one of the Chusan Islands in the Hangzhou Bay delta across from Shanghai , then to present a letter from himself to a Chinese official for the Emperor , then to proceed to the Gulf of Bohai for a treaty, and if the Chinese resisted, then to blockade the key ports of the Yangtze and Yellow rivers.
On 20 January, Elliot announced "the conclusion of preliminary arrangements", which included the cession of the then-barren Hong Kong Island and its harbour to the British Crown.
The treaty failed to satisfy British expectations of a major expansion of trade and profit, which led to increasing pressure for a revision of the terms.
The Consul in Canton, Harry Parkes , claimed the hauling down of the flag and arrest of the crew were "an insult of very grave character".
In March , Palmerston appointed Lord Elgin as Plenipotentiary with the aim of securing a new and satisfactory treaty.
A French expeditionary force joined the British to avenge the execution of a French missionary in In the Treaty of Tientsin, the Chinese accepted British demands to open more ports, navigate the Yangtze River, legalise the opium trade and have diplomatic representation in Beijing.
During the conflict, the British occupied the Kowloon Peninsula , where the flat land was valuable training and resting ground.
In , the British sought to extend Hong Kong for defence. Since the foreign powers had agreed by the late 19th century that it was no longer permissible to acquire outright sovereignty over any parcel of Chinese territory, and in keeping with the other territorial cessions China made to Russia , Germany and France that same year, the extension of Hong Kong took the form of a year lease.
The lease consisted of the rest of Kowloon south of the Sham Chun River and islands, which became known as the New Territories.
The British formally took possession on 16 April On 8 December, the Battle of Hong Kong began when Japanese air bombers effectively destroyed British air power in one attack.
The British commander, Major-General Christopher Maltby , concluded that the island could not be defended for long unless he withdrew his brigade from the mainland.
On 18 December, the Japanese crossed Victoria Harbour. Maltby recommended a surrender to Governor Sir Mark Young , who accepted his advice to reduce further losses.
The plan was to launch a New Year's Day attack on the Japanese in the Canton region, but before the Chinese infantry could attack, the Japanese had broken Hong Kong's defences.
The British casualties were 2, killed or missing and 2, wounded. The Japanese reported 1, killed and 6, wounded.
The Japanese soldiers committed atrocities, including rape, on many locals. The Japanese imprisoned the ruling British colonial elite and sought to win over the local merchant gentry by appointments to advisory councils and neighbourhood watch groups.
The policy worked well for Japan and produced extensive collaboration from both the elite and the middle class, with far less terror than in other Chinese cities.
Hong Kong was transformed into a Japanese colony, with Japanese businesses replacing the British. However, the Japanese Empire had severe logistical difficulties and by the food supply for Hong Kong was problematic.
The overlords became more brutal and corrupt, and the Chinese gentry became disenchanted. With the surrender of Japan, the transition back to British rule was smooth, for on the mainland the Nationalist and Communist forces were preparing for a civil war and ignored Hong Kong.
In the long run the occupation strengthened the pre-war social and economic order among the Chinese business community by eliminating some conflicts of interests and reducing the prestige and power of the British.
On 14 August , when Japan announced its unconditional surrender, the British formed a naval task group to sail towards Hong Kong.
He formally accepted the Japanese surrender on 16 September in Government House. The Declaration entered into force with the exchange of instruments of ratification on 27 May and was registered by the People's Republic of China and United Kingdom governments at the United Nations on 12 June The number was finally extended to The principal British guest was Charles, Prince of Wales who read a farewell speech on behalf of the Queen.
This event was broadcast on television and radio stations across the world. Hong Kong was a Crown colony of the United Kingdom and maintained an administration roughly modelled after the Westminster system.
The Letters Patent formed the constitutional basis of the colonial government and the Royal Instructions detailed how the territory should be governed and organised.
The Governor was the head of government and appointed by the British monarch to serve as the representative of the Crown in the colony.
Executive power was highly concentrated with the Governor, who himself appointed almost all members of the Legislative Council and Executive Council and also served as President of both chambers.
The Executive Council determined administrative policy changes and considered primary legislation before passing it to the Legislative Council for approval.
This advisory body also itself issued secondary legislation under a limited set of colonial ordinances. The Legislative Council debated proposed legislation and was responsible for the appropriation of public funds.
This chamber was reformed in the last years of colonial rule to introduce more democratic representation. Further electoral reform in effectively made the legislature broadly representative.
The judicial system was based on English law , with Chinese customary law taking a secondary role in civil cases involving Chinese residents.
During the early colonial period, extraterritorial appellate cases from other regions of China involving British subjects were also tried in this court.
Further appeals from the Supreme Court were heard by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council , which exercised final adjudication over the entire British Empire.
In , Governor Sir Hercules Robinson introduced the Hong Kong Cadetship, which recruited young graduates from Britain to learn Cantonese and written Chinese for two years, before deploying them on a fast track to the Civil Service.
Cadet officers gradually formed the backbone of the civil administration. After the Second World War, ethnic Chinese were allowed into the service, followed by women.
Cadets were renamed Administrative Officers in the s, and they remained the elite of the Civil Service during British rule.
The stability, security, and predictability of British law and government enabled Hong Kong to flourish as a centre for international trade.
The importance of opium reduced over time, but the colonial government was dependent on its revenues until the Japanese occupation in By the late s, many ethnic Chinese people had become major business figures in Hong Kong.
Amongst these billionaires was Sir Ka-shing Li , who had become one of the colony's wealthiest people by this time.
During China's turbulent 20th century, Hong Kong served as a safe haven for dissidents, political refugees, and officials who lost power.
British policy allowed dissidents to live in Hong Kong as long as they did not break local laws or harm British interests.
The implementation of this policy varied according to what the senior officials thought constituted British interests and the state of relations with China.
The riots and Maoist -led riots , essentially spillovers from the Cultural Revolution , were large scale demonstrations fuelled by tensions surrounding labour disputes and dissatisfaction towards the government.
Historian Steve Tsang wrote that it was "ironic" that despite Hong Kong being a symbol of China's humiliation by Britain, there was not one major movement started by the Chinese residents of the colony for its retrocession to China, even though there had been several upsurges of Chinese nationalism.
In the s, the working class Chinese of Hong Kong did not have a good reason to rally around the Hong Kong government, and they were more susceptible to appeals based on Chinese nationalism.
Consequently, the call of the Communists was basically heeded by the working men, and their actions practically paralysed the colony for a year.
By the [end of the] s, however, the attempts by the Hong Kong government to maintain stability and good order which helped improve everyone's living conditions, and They overwhelmingly rallied around the colonial British regime.
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